The terracotta warriors and horses, created about 2,200 years ago, were found in 1974 on the east side of the tomb of the First Emperor Qin Shihuang (259 BC - 210 BC) near Xi'an. The site is now the famous Terra-cotta
Museum, which consists of three main buildings, Pit 1, Pit 2 and Pit 3. The
three pits occupy an area of 22,000 square meters, housing about 8,000 life-size
pottery warriors and horses.

兵马俑创于2200年以前,1974年发现于西安秦始皇(公元前259年--公元前210年)陵的东边,该遗址是现在著名的兵马俑博物馆,由三个主要的建筑组成,1号坑、2号坑、3号坑。这三个坑占地面积22000平米,大约有8000多真人大小的陶俑和马匹。



Pit 1 is the largest of the three. It contains over 6,000 life-size terracotta warriors and horses in a practical battle formation, which is the main force of the underground army. Pit 2, discovered in 1976, contains more
than 1,300 pottery figures, which are specialized military forces, including
archers, chariots, and cavalries. Pit 3 is the smallest of the three, containing
only 68 pottery figures and one chariot. Pit 3 is the command center of the
entire army.

1号坑是这三个中最大的,有6000多个真人大小的兵马俑和马匹,以现实中的战斗队形排列着,这是地下军的主要力量。2号坑发现与1976年.有大概1300个俑,其中包括弓箭手、车马、和骑兵。3号坑是三个中最小的,有68个俑和一个车马,3号坑是整个军队的指挥中心。


The terracotta warriors are about 1.8 meters in height on average. Each of them has an individualized appearance, characterized mainly by its facial features, such as the mouth, hairstyle and facial expression. Experts
believe they are modeled on real soldiers.

兵马俑平均身高大约是1.8米,他们每个人都有很个性化的外观,主要特点就是脸部,如嘴、发行、和面部表情,专家们都认为他们是以真正的军人为蓝本的。

About 600 satellite pits and tombs have been unearthed in the surrounding area of the tomb of the First Emperor since the discovery of terracotta warriors and horses in 1974. Thirty-one pits of rare animals and
birds and 98 sets of the stable pits have been unearthed.

自从1974年发现兵马俑以来,大约有600多个卫星坑在秦始皇陵的周围地区被出土。31个坑里的珍惜野生动物和鸟类和98个稳定坑已经被出土。



The well-known Terra-cotta Museum is located east of Emperor Qin's Mausoleum, which covers a total area of 20 hectares. The museum is decorated with green trees. The scenery in the museum are quite elegant and delightful. Three main
buildings of the museum, which were named Pit 1,Pit 2, Pit 3, were set up on
their original sites in different periods of time.
众所周知的兵马俑博物馆位于秦始皇陵的东部,总面积20公顷,该博物馆是以绿色的树木装修的,博物馆的风景十分的优雅,博物馆中三个主要的建筑是1号坑、2号坑、3号坑,分别是在不同时期的原址上建立的。



It is recorded that in March, 1974, the farmers from Xiyang Village of Yanzhai Township in Lintong District of Xian accidentally discovered many broken pottery figures while digging a well, 1.5 km away to east of Emperor Qin Shihuang's
Tomb. After archaeological Xian Terra-cotta Armyexcavation and careful research, it turned out to be a pit in which
were buried terra-cotta warriors and horses from the Qin Dynasty. In 1976, after
drilling, another two pits were found one by one nearby. They were named Pit 1,
2 and 3 according to the timing of discovery with a total area of 22,780 square
metres.
据记载,1974年3月,在西安临潼区的沿寨乡西羊村农民在秦始皇陵墓以东1.5公里出挖井时,无意中发现了许多破碎的陶器的陶俑。经过仔细研究和考古发掘,它原来是一个被埋藏在其中的秦兵马俑坑和马匹。 1976年,经过钻探,发现了附近另外两个坑。根据发现的时间,它们分别命名为必一,二,三号坑,总面积约为22780平米




This profound discovery made a sensation across the whole world! In 1975, the State Council offered permission that a museum with an area of 16,300 square metres be built
on the site of Pit No. 1 at the aim of protecting the valuable historical
relics. The museum was officially finished and opened to the public on October
01, National Day, 1979. The exhibition hall of Pit No. 3 was finished and opned
to the public on September 27, 1989. 5 years later, the exhibition hall of Pit
No. 2 was open to the public in October, 1994. The museum and the mausoleum are
listed the world's cultural legacies as the UNESCO.

这个惊人的发现惊动了整个世界,1975年,国务院允许在原址上建立一个16300平米的博物馆来保护这些历史文物。该博物馆正式竣工并于1979年10月1日国庆节向公众开放,3号展厅于1989年9月7日开放,5年后,2号展馆也相继于1994年10月1日开放博物馆和陵墓被世界教科文组织命名为世界文化遗产。


Pit No. 1 is in an oblong shape of tunnel. It is 230 metres long from east to west and 62 metres wide from north to south. It is 5 metres deep. It occupies an area of 14,260 square metres. Inside the tunnel, there are ten earth-rammed
partition walls. The floors are bricks-paved. The terra-cotta warriors and
horses in Pit No. 1 are lined in a real battle formation. To the east end of the
pit stand facing east three rows of terra-cotta warriors in battle tunics and
puttees, 70 in each row with total number of 210 put altogether. Armed with bows
and arrows, they form the vanguard. There are 38 columns of warriors in the east
with horse-drawn chariots in the centre. The armour-clad warriors carrying
long-shaft weapons are probably the main body of the formation and show the main
force.

1号坑是一个椭圆形的形状,由东至西共230米长,由北至南62米宽。有5米深,占地面积14260平米,隧道的,有10个地球撞隔墙。地板是砖铺成的。在兵马俑一号坑,并在一个真正的战斗队形排列马匹。对于这些坑东端的立场面对在战场长袍和绑腿,每行70 总数210,一共三排。手持弓箭,它们形成的先锋队。中心东边共有38列俑和铜车马。该装甲的战士很可能是形成主体和显示的主要力量。

Pit No. 2 is situated 20 metres to the north of Pit No. 1. The Pit is L--shaped and composed of four different mixed military forces in four rows. It is recorded that there were more than 1, 000 pieces of pottery
figures, 500 horse-driven chariots and saddled horses. The pit is about 6,000
square metres.

2号坑位于1号坑北部20米处,坑的形状是L形状的和四种不同形状的混合部队。据记载共有1000多个陶俑,500个车马,该坑大约有6000平米。

Pit No. 3 is situated 25 metres to the north of Pit No. 1 and to the west of Pit No. 2. Tthe pit is in the concave shape with 520 square metres. From the pit were discovered one chariot, four terra-cotta horses and 68
clay armoured warriors. In Pit No. 3 were only unearthed one kind of weapon
called "shu", which had no blades and are said to be used by the guards of
honour. Discovered also in this pit were a re- maining deer-horn and animal
bones. This is maybe the site where sacrificial offerings and war prayers were
practiced.

 3号坑位于1号坑北部25米处,位于2号坑西部,该坑呈现是520平米的凹形状,从该坑中发现1战车、4个陶泥马和68个战士,从三号坑中仅仅出土了一种武器叫‘戍’它没有刀片,据说是用来防身的。在这个坑也发现了鹿角和兽骨,这个可能是祭祀的地方,也可能是战争祈祷胜利的地方。

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In December 1980, two sets of large painted bronze chariots and horses were unearthed 20 metres west of the tomb of the first Emperor of the Qin Dynasty. They were listed as No.1 and No.2 respectively according to their discovery. They were then enclosed in a wooden coffin and buried in a pit seven metres deep. When excavated, the chariots and horses were seriously damaged due to the decayed wooden coffin and the collapse of earthen layers. No.2 bronze chariot and horses were found broken into 1555 pieces when excavated. After two-and-half years of careful and painstaking restoration by archaeologists and other experts they were formally open to the public on October 1, 1983. No.1 bronze chariot and horses were also open to the public in 1988.

在1980年12月,两套大型彩绘铜车马在秦始皇陵西边的20米出出土,根据发现,他恩分别被列为1号和2号。然后他们被封闭在一个木质的棺材里边,并且埋在一个7米深的坑内。当被发掘时,由于木质棺材的损坏和泥土的坍塌,铜车马已经被严重的损坏。2号铜车马当被发掘的时候已经都破碎成1555张碎片了。经过科学家、考古专家两年半的修复,在1983年10月1日正式对公众开放,1号铜车马在1988年对外开放。


terracotta warriors interesting facts

兵马俑的有趣事实

The unique life-size terracotta warriors vary in height (183 - 195cm), uniform and hairstyle according to their rank (the tallest being the generals) and their detail is astounding. Even the body armour rivet heads stand out and fine tread patterns have been mounded onto kneeling warriors the shoe soles.

独特的真人大小的兵马俑的高度不同(183 - 195厘米),制服和发型根据其职级(最高的是将军)也有所不同,令人咋舌。头带盔甲,脚踩踏板的跪射俑


The size, coloured lacquer finish, facial expressions, and real weapons from battle make them eerily lifelike. And although many of the original weapons were stolen and the colouring has faded greatly, they are still uncannily realistic. Interestingly, the weapons which were found were treated to make them resistant to rust and corrosion so that even after being buried for over 2000 years they were still sharp and ready for battle.

无论是大小、颜色、面部表情还是真正的武器都使他们看起来栩栩如生。原来许多武器已经被盗,或者颜色已经大大失色,但是他们却仍然看起来比较的真实,幸运的是,其中发现的武器已经被修复过,使其抗锈蚀和腐蚀,以至于被埋藏了2000多年了仍然保存间亮。

We've only uncovered a small fraction of the total 'army' of figures: experts currently place the entire number of soldiers at 8,000 – with 130 chariots, 530 horses and 150 cavalry horses helping to ward of any dangers in the after life. So far only just over 1,000 soldiers are on display at the emperor's famous mausoleum, near the ancient capital of Xi'an, Shaanxi province. 到目前为止,我们只发现了整个军队的一小部分陶俑,专家们近来一共发现了8000个士兵---和130个战车、530匹马和150个战车马,协助来抵御以后的敌侵。到目前为止。只有1000个士兵展出在陕西省西安市附近的秦始皇陵博物馆。
In fact, archaeologists have just recently begun to excavate the third of the three burial pits containing the warriors. Work commenced on Saturday, June 6th this year and is expected to proffer at least hundreds more of the famous figures. This time, however, experts are keen to keep the vivid colours, found on all terracotta warriors thus far, intact. All previous soldiers have turned an oxidised grey when exposed to air. 事实上,考古学家已经发掘出了三分之一。今年7月六日,至少有估计至少有几百陶俑被发掘,然而这一次,专家们希望能够保持她们鲜艳的颜色,现在所发现的兵马俑完好无损,以前的士兵全都暴露在空气中,当遇到空气他们都会腐蚀。
The Chinese historian Sima Qian wrote in the 2nd century BC - a full hundred years after the Emperor's death - that over 700,000 men took 36 years to create his terracotta army. Modern historians feel Sima may have been slightly economical with the truth, and argue as few as 16,000 men could have done the job in just two years. 据中国历史学家司马迁在公元钱2世纪所写的---皇帝死后的整一百年--有超过700000个人花费36年时间去建造这些兵马俑,现代的历史学家认为司马迁约有真理经济,有争论称有至少16000人仅仅花费两年时间就建造了这些兵马俑。
The First Qin Emperor didn't just want an army to protect him in the afterlife: a 1999 excavation at the site uncovered eleven terracotta acrobats and strongmen. Popular performers 2,000 years ago, the acts would have been meant to entertain the emperor in his journey through the afterlife. 秦始皇不仅仅是想要这些军队来保护他的后世,1999年考古发掘现场发现了11个杂技俑和很强壮的人,这在2000年前是非常出名的,这个场景演绎的就是秦始皇在他们后世的娱乐场景。


Qin Shi Huang was terrified of death - but allegedly died from taking too many mercury pills, which he thought would give him immortality 秦始皇惧怕死亡,所以他就一直在找长生不老药,他认为那个可以让他长生不老。
The First Emperor, Qin Shi Huang, was terrified of death and was constantly searching for the so-called 'elixir of life'. After allegedly sending 8,000 people on expeditions to find his cure unsuccessfully (they never returned, knowing they'd be killed without the elixir – legend says they founded Japan), Qin relied on mercury tablets in increasing doses, until they killed him aged 50. How ironic. 秦始皇恐惧死亡,所以他在一直寻找一种可以让他长生不老的药,他发配8000人去寻找可以治愈成功的药。(他们都没有再回来,据说他们知道找不到,所以都被杀死了,最后发现于日本。)在他50岁死之前,他还一直在和水银片,而且剂量不断的增加,这是多么可怕的一件事。
The Emperor was extremely proud of his cavernous tomb. So proud, in fact, that he promptly murdered its creators to sustain a resounding enigma which endures to this day. Only recently have probes entered the giant subterranean complex, which contains high levels of mercury – appearing to confirm the above legend. 皇帝非常以它的海绵状陵墓感到自豪。事实上,他立即杀死了创造者,以至于将这个谜底维持到今天。知道最近,探头才进入复杂的地下宫殿,里面有高浓度的水银--可以正式以上的传说是真正的。
Though each terracotta warrior is unique, experts believe a set number of facial moulds were actually used, before workmen added clay to make each one distinct. Each limb and the head was created separately before being fixed to the torso. 每一个陶俑都是唯一,专家相信在工人将粘土弄在每一个俑的身上时,许多的面庞都是现实中的,每一个肢体和头部在创作之前都是先固定在身体的躯干上的
: You won't just find terracotta warriors in the middle of China, or the world's biggest museums. The living terracotta warrior, DC ahead of the city's National Geographic Museum's terracotta warriors exhibition. You can keep tabs on Chi's progress on the National Geographic's Facebook profile.在中国的中部您不仅可以找到兵马俑或者世界最大的博物馆、鲜活的兵马俑。国家地理博物馆的兵马俑展品,您可以在智力国家地理博物馆找到有关兵马俑的资料。
How to Get There:
怎样到达


Terra-Cotta Warriors is located to the east of Xi’an in Lingtong County. A visit to the Terra-Cotta Warriors is usually combined with a visit to some of the following sites: Tomb of Qin Shi Huang, Qin Shi Huang’s Palace, Banpo Neolithic Village and Huaqing Pool.

兵马俑位于西安临潼区东部,游览兵马俑您还可以同时游览秦始皇陵、秦始皇博物院、半坡民俗村和华清池。
Public Bus number 306, which is also called bus number 游5 (you 5, travel 5), travels from the train station, along the east route to it’s terminus at The Museum of Terra-Cotta Warriors and Horses of Qin Shihuang. Along the way it also stops at Huaqing Pool, Lingtong Museum, Qin Shi Huang’s Palace and the Tomb of Qin Shi Huang.

公交车306,也叫游5,从火车站出发,沿着东线到达到达终点站秦始皇兵马俑。沿着站点走,可以经过华清池、临潼博物馆、秦始皇陵。

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